Interactive Resource icon  Fold Geometry and Process Steps

Use this resource: Use this resource icon
Link to this page:
View at:        
Resource type: Interactive Resource
Description: Folding is carried out in a sequence of pre-folding (to ≤45°) and final folding (to 180°) processes. During pre-folding a punch is used with a curved surface and an entry angle β, to compensate for springback. In the final folding operation, the punch is designed with an inclined surface and an angle α to maintain the bead (rope hem) radius, which varies depending on sheet thickness. During bending the outer surface can show roughening effects (orange peel), notches and finally cracks and failure. This interactive animation schematically shows all these steps and final geometry of the fold.
Keywords: sheet • pre-folding • final folding • bending • springback • roughening • geometry
Categories: Materials > Metals & alloys > Aluminium & alloys
Processes > Shaping > Deformation > Sheet forming
Product Forms > Flat > Sheet
Created by: MATTER, The University of Liverpool
European Aluminium Association, Brussels
Contributions: Jürgen Hirsch, Hydro Aluminium Deutschland GmbH
Stefan Wagner, Universität Stuttgart
Jens Baur, Universität Stuttgart
Alexander Felde, Universität Stuttgart
Peter Unseld, Universität Stuttgart
Panajotis Delinasakis, Universität Stuttgart
Mihai Vulcan, Universität Stuttgart
Dorel Banabic, Universität Stuttgart
Marc Ryckeboer, Sapa
License: This resource is released under the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives license (2.0 UK: England & Wales).
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives logo
You are free:
  • to share – to copy, distribute and transmit the work
Under the following conditions:
  • attribution – You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work).
  • noncommercial – You may not use this work for commercial purposes.
  • No Derivative Works – You may not alter, transform, or build upon this work.
View the full legal code here.
Date created: 23 February 2005
Date added: 21 December 2009
Resource ID: 2588