Interactive Resource icon  Chip Formation

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Description: Chips are formed by the shearing of metal in an area upstream from the tool's cutting edge, located on both sides of a plane that forms an angle φ with the direction of the cut. There are three main areas: the primary shearing area, where the material is subjected to plastic deformation and also heats up considerably; the secondary shearing area, at the interface between the tool and the chip - this is an area where friction and slipping occur, which among other things cause crater wear in the tool; and the tertiary shearing area between the flank and the machined surface, which gives rise to flank wear, due to the springback of the material after the tip of the tool has passed over it. The exercise schematically shows these areas, with φ being shear plane angle, α - clearance angle and γ - cutting angle.
Keywords: chip • shearing area • plastic deformation • springback • built-up edge
Categories: Materials > Metals & alloys > Aluminium & alloys
Processes > Shaping > Machining
Created by: Benoît Verquin, CETIM
Jean Saint-Chely, CETIM
Cheryl Anderson, The University of Liverpool
MATTER, The University of Liverpool
Contributions: Marc Ryckeboer, Sapa
Bernard Marandet, ALCAN Centre de Recherches de Voreppe
Published by: European Aluminium Association, Brussels
License: This resource is released under the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives license (2.0 UK: England & Wales).
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Date created: 29 April 2004
Date added: 29 July 2010
Resource ID: 3146